diseases caused by deficiency of vitamins and minerals

In most cases, high levels of oral supplementation of vitamin C are enough to reverse the condition in a matter of weeks, and death by scurvy is almost unheard of. In the rest of the world, displacement due to war, and unfortified food from aid programs, has left survivors with enough calories, but not enough nutrients. 39 40. Deficiency disease examples: Vitamin B1 deficiency causes beriberi, lack of iron in the body can lead to anaemia.  Cataracts. Recently, beriberi was also seen in Haitian prisons when the prison system began buying imported polished rice from the United States, and stopped feeding their inmates the local brown rice. It is one of the major causes of night blindness in pregnant women. The research focused on the benefits of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and their associated deficiency diseases and health complications. muscle cramping. As the disease progressed, the teeth would become loose, extreme halitosis (bad breath) would develop, the afflicted would become too weak to walk or work, be in too much pain to eat, and would die “mid-sentence,” often from a burst blood vessel. Although his findings weren’t widely accepted at first, the British Navy eventually began issuing standard rations of lemon juice, and later, limes, to their sailors—which gave rise to the term “limey” in reference to the British. Vitamin A Deficiency. Deficiency of vitamin D is an exception. The superior taste of the milled white rice led many locals to abandon the local (unpolished) brown rice, and in doing so, abandon their primary source of thiamine. Despite the extensive work of Dr. Joseph Goldberger in the 1910s and 1920s, which proved that pellagra wasn’t caused by a germ but by a dietary deficiency, the condition was occurring in epidemic proportions in the rural Southern US until the 1940s. Vitamin D deficiency. Preserved meats and carbohydrates contained no vitamin C, and unlike most animals, the human body is not able to create vitamin C on its own. Of course, the minerals essential to the human body play similarly important roles in maintaining health.  Diabetes mellitus. nausea and vomiting. people with untreated celiac disease often are low in these: *iron *calcium *fiber *zinc *magnesium *folate *niacin Vitamin and sources Function Deficiency disease Symptoms A Sources: Green leafy vegetables, fruits, butter, egg yolk, carrots, and fish Keeps eyes, hair, and skin healthy Night blindness Dryness of eyes; improper … They can also come from a diet low in vitamins and minerals. From the 1860s to the turn of the 20th century, people whose plant consumption was limited to the polished white rice would often come down with weakness, pain, weight loss, difficulty walking, and emotional disturbances. Despite not being able to pinpoint the exact cause of scurvy, in the 18th century, naval physician James Lind was able to prove, in what’s considered to be the first controlled scientific experiment, that scurvy could be prevented (and cured) by incorporating citrus fruits such as limes and oranges into the diet of sailors. Scurvy didn’t become a significant problem until the Age of Discovery (beginning in the 15th century), when people at sea were not able to access that much-needed fresh food for months at a time. When the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light (such as from the sun), cholesterol in the skin reacts and forms cholecalciferol, which is then processed in the liver and kidneys to create the active form of vitamin D. Even with a nominally healthy diet, without enough sun exposure, the body can’t produce the vitamin D precursors on its own. when your small intestine is damaged, it can’t absorb vitamins and minerals. Here are a few of those maladies. Many of the early explorers lost great numbers of men to scurvy: Vasco de Gama lost 116 out of 170 men in 1499, and in 1520, Magellan lost 208 out of 230. Beriberi became one of the leading causes of mortality in the region. However, after years of study, he came to the conclusion that “white rice is poisonous.” He discovered this by feeding a group of chickens solely white rice, and another group unpolished brown rice. The medical names of the different conditions are derived from the vitamin involved: an excess of vitamin A, for example, is called " hypervitaminosis A ". Symptoms include fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss, edema, heart failure, and disturbed nerve function. It was initially believed that either the corn itself, or some insect associated with corn, was causing pellagra. Deficiency of Minerals Table lists some important minerals and their sources, functions, deficiency diseases, and symptoms. The chickens that ate the white rice came down with beriberi-like symptoms, while the others stayed healthy. China, parts of Africa, Indonesia, and North Korea all have endemic pellagra among their lowest classes. SCIENCE 7 th - BY PANKTI DAVE HEALTH AND DISEASE 2. Consuming too little of a vitamin can cause a nutritional disorder. Vitamins and micronutrients Vitamin poisoning is the condition of overly high storage levels of vitamins, which can lead to toxic symptoms. Vitamin deficiencies generally present with apathy as the foremost behavioral symptom, but some nutritional deficiencies are reported to cause agitation and violence, usually as a result of psychosis (Table II).Pyridoxine (B 6) deficiency due to homocystinuria may cause psychosis.Folic acid deficiency in homocystinuria and hypomethioninemia may cause a schizophrenia-like syndrome. Vitamin D Deficiency: In children a vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets, deformed bones, delayed growth, and soft teeth. The early symptoms of scurvy include spongy gums, pain in the joints, and blood spots appearing under the skin. A nutritional deficiency can be caused by intake of inadequate nutrients, or a defect in the body’s absorption mechanism. Page 110 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "8 Vitamins, Minerals, and Chronic Diseases." Between the era that corn was introduced to Europe (the early 16th century) and the late 19th century, pellagra was found almost everywhere that poor people subsisted on cornmeal and little else. diseases caused by deficiency of VITAMINS & MINERALS (Science) 1. But in adults, it both takes significantly longer to develop and tends to cause tip-off signs that something is wrong before bone warping sets in, such as extreme pain in the bones, and unexplained muscle weakness. In children, especially those that don’t or can’t receive regular check-ups, deformity and debilitation by the deficiency is often only noticed after significant damage has been done to their developing skeletons. This condition is largely confined to Asia, especially in countries where boiled rice is a staple. 4 Diseases Caused by a Lack of Essential Vitamins and Minerals If you answered “vampirism,” you’re close—the myth of the vampire may have its roots in the condition known as “pellagra.”, Pellagra is caused by a lack of vitamin B3 (niacin). Vitamin D is vital for keeping bones, teeth and muscles healthy. Vitamin A deficiency is the major cause of severe diseases, infections and preventable blindness in children. Although beriberi was known to exist in rice-eating countries several centuries back, its prevalence boomed with the introduction of steam-driven rice-polishing mills from Europe. A few deaths were attributable to other causes, but the vast majority were due to scurvy. Vitamin … loss of appetite. Because lack of minerals can cause several other health diseases. A disease of the peripheral nerves caused by a dietary deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). However, people who eat a variety of foods are unlikely to develop most vitamin deficiencies. Even though the disease was known since ancient times (described by Hippocrates around 400 BCE), it was not a scourge to those who were largely land-bound. Beriberi is occasionally seen in the modern world, but its primary cause is chronic alcoholism—the poor diets of some chronic alcoholics, combined with the decreased absorption of what thiamine is consumed, leads to symptoms that unfortunately are sometimes left undiagnosed until it’s too late.  Fatigue and joint pain. However, when one analyses plant, fungal and microbial cells, one would see thousands of compounds other than these called primary metabolites, e.g. THERAPEUTIC USES  Cardiovascular diseases. It also helps … However, humans have not historically had a widespread significant problem acquiring these nutrients, as most plants absorb many minerals from the soil. Vitamin D: Vitamin D research is in its infancy, but so far it has shown that vitamin D affects most of the body’s tissues.Current research links vitamin D deficiency with 17 different types of cancer (including breast cancer) and many other illnesses like osteoporosis, heart disease and juvenile diabetes. Fat malabsorption. The discovery of important vitamins and how to produce them has been so significant to human health that many of those who were integral to the discoveries have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine; more than 10 Nobel Prizes have been divided among almost 20 eminent scientists for the discovery or isolation of vitamins A, B1, B12, C, D, E, and K. 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